Fabric Printing & Types of Printing
The application of color in a predetermined pattern (design) on the fabric's surface using various techniques and methods is called printing.
It can take place before construction of fabric on the yarns, or after the fabric is constructed or even on the completion of garments. Printing is done using print pastes, which contain a combination of dyestuffs depending on the type and the method of printing and the design of the print.
Techniques of Printing
Techniques of printing are approaches through which printing is carried out. These are the basic principles of printing. There are four basic techniques of printing:
- Direct Printing
- Discharge Printing
- Resist Printing
- Transfer Printing
The color is directly applied to the fabric's surface. This technique is also called overprinting when the print paste's color is darker than the fabric's surface color.
In this technique, the print paste is applied to the design area on a pre-dyed fabric. The print paste removes the dye on the fabric, either completely to give a white color (white discharge) or leave a separate color (color discharge) on the previously dyed fabric.
Opposite to the discharge printing technique, this technique involves the application of a resist paste on the fabric. The fabric is then dyed. The area where the paste has been applied blocks the penetration of dye onto the surface of the fabric, leaving the design in a different color.
In this technique, the design is printed onto the surface of a special paper first and then transferred onto the fabric with the use of a heated calendar.
Methods of Printing
Methods of printing include technology (equipment) used to print on the fabric. The various methods of printing include:
- Block Printing
- Blotch Printing
- Burn-out Printing
- Flock Printing
- Roller Printing
- Screen Printing
- Warp Printing
Conventionally done by hand, this method involves the use of wooden blocks to print onto the surface. The design that needs to be printed is carved onto the wooden block. The printed paste is applied to the wooden block stamps and the wooden blocks are then placed onto the fabric to transfer the design.
This method uses the direct technique of printing. Both the background and the design are printed onto the fabric rather than first dyeing the fabric and then printing the design onto it.
In this method, certain chemicals are used to react with the fibers of the fabric. When the chemical reacts the fibers dissolve to leave behind a specific design onto the fabric. This method is used to produce open-work kind of fabrics. Ex: fabrics with eyelets.
In flock printing, a special adhesive or electrostatic charge is used to fix fibers (flocks) to the surface of the fabric, creating a special raised effect on the fabric.
In this method, the design to be printed is transferred onto the fabric using engraved rollers. There is a separate roller for every color of the design that needs to be printed. The rollers dispense the dyes onto the surface of the fabric.
As the name suggests, in this method of printing, screens are used to print on the fabric. The mesh on the screens is coated with a special substance on the areas where the design or the print is not required. The special substance, usually made out of a polymer, prevents the color from penetrating on the fabric. The color penetrated through the mesh area which is not covered, leaving behind the design.
There are three main types of screen printing:
- Manual Screen Printing
- Flat Screen Printing
- Rotary Screen Printing
Manual Screen Printing
The fabric is placed on the table and the screen is manually placed on the fabric to print. The print paste is poured onto the screen. Using a squeegee, the paste is forced through the areas of the mesh which have not been blocked. This creates the design on the fabric.
Flat Screen Printing
In this method of printing, both the screen and fabric are in motion. The fabric moves on a conveyor, which moves over the printing table. The fabric stops, the screen is placed on the fabric and using a squeegee, the printing is carried out. The screen moves upwards, and the fabric moves further. The cycle continues until the entire fabric is printed.
Rotary Screen Printing
The screen in this method of printing is in a cylindrical form which moves continuously with the fabric. The print paste is dispensed through the cylinders and the design is printed on the fabric.
The design is printed on the sheet of the warp yarns before weaving of the fabric takes place. The weft yarns are then interlaced with the warp yarns to reveal the final design on the fabric.
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