Creative Long Exposure Photography Using Bulb Mode
Long Exposure Photography
One of my favorite creative activities to do with the camera is to take long exposure photos. In particular, as soon as I discovered the bulb mode function I was able to take some really interesting long exposure photographs.
Without this function you will likely not be able to take a photo of lightning, unless you are extraordinarily lucky. It will allow you to do some amazing light painting projects. Photographing the night sky becomes a beautiful possibility. Long exposure landscape photography using a neutral density filter can be useful in this setting.
All these techniques are possible with a little practice. Discovering this mode in your camera will unlock many creative ideas for your photography.
What Is Bulb Mode?
Back in the day the photographer would squeeze a bulb to open the camera shutter. As long as the photographer squeezed the bulb the shutter would stay open. Today's cameras have shutter speed capabilities anywhere between 1/4000th of a second to 30 seconds. Giving that range one might ask what is the point of holding open the shutter manually when you can simply dial in how long the shutter should stay open.
It is about control. Having the ability to open the shutter manually and keep it open for as long as one wants gives one an impressive amount of control for creative purposes. It is possible to keep the shutter open for one minute, three minutes, 10 minutes or longer. The only thing that would limit the time the shutter could stay open is battery life of the camera.
How to Set Up Your Camera
It seems every camera has a different means of accessing this function. On some cameras you simply put it in manual mode and just start dialing back your shutter speed. The indicator will show progressively lower shutter speeds, one second will be indicated as 1”, 10 seconds as 10” and so forth. When the shutter speed gets to 30” it will either stop or the next setting lower will be indicated as the speed you are looking to set.
My Canon has a button on the top dial indicated as “B”. That is the bulb mode. Most DSLRs have something similar.
I have a mirrorless Panasonic that frankly took a little effort to figure out this position. I typically shoot in “silent mode”. This switches the shutter from mechanical to electronic. In silent mode the lowest the shutter will go is one second.
In order to get to bulb mode the shutter has to be switched back from electronic to mechanical. Then when the mode dial is switched to Manual the shutter speed dial will have various new options ranging from two seconds, four seconds, 15 seconds, 30 seconds to even 60 seconds. One more turn of the dial puts it on “B” which is the correct position.
One caveat: This setting eliminates the light meter. Exposure settings are no longer able to be adjusted as normal. Figuring out what ISO and aperture to use will take a whole bunch of experimentation.
Uses of Limitless Shutter Speed
Once the shutter has been set the next thing to do is simply give the shutter button a press, and hold it. The camera will make a noise as the shutter is opened and only when the shutter is released will a sound be made that the shutter is closed.
See how easy that is?
Put the camera on 'B', dial in the ISO and aperture that is required, frame the shot, press the shutter button and after however long is deemed necessary, release the shutter button.
Now it is time to be creative.
Two Items Need for This Type of Photography
Camera shake is to be avoided when taking photos in in this mode. There is a rule that is common in photography tutorials to plan on using a tripod if the shutter speed drops below 1/60th of a second. It's a good rule and doesn't really take into account image stabilization. But that is a good place to start. Now think about a 2 minute shutter speed. There is no viable way to hand hold a camera and get sharp images at that speed.
A tripod or sturdy surface is an absolute must.
In addition to the tripod a cable release is also very handy. It is possible to keep a finger pressed on the shutter button for as long as the shutter needs to remain open. However the possibility of introducing camera shake with even the slightest movement of your finger is a decent possibility. That is why a shutter trigger is the best option to get a sharp photo.
Time to Get Creative
Now to the fun part. Whenever a thunderstorm rolls up I inevitably grab my camera and begin taking long exposure photos in the hopes of capturing lightning. It is fairly simple, though it has to be at night for the best results. Compose the photo toward the storm, press the shutter button until a lightning bolt strikes, then release the shutter. If lucky there will be a nice capture of lighting exposed in your photo.
Another favorite technique is light painting in the dark. I have a string of LED lights that I simply wrap around a long pole. I grab a wide angle lens and compose the area where I want to shoot. With my daughter's assistance I have her walk, or run, with the strand of lights while I have the shutter open. After 30 or 45 seconds I release the shutter. The result is usually an interesting stream of continuous lights streaming across the photo. The creative possibilities for light painting are endless.
I also enjoy the ever popular steel photography. I have a small metal basket that I place steel wool in. I attach it to length of lightweight chain. I light the basket of steel wool and begin spinning it around my head. The affect is a crazy, blazing stream of light spraying everywhere.
Other techniques in long exposure include night sky photography and landscape long exposures using a neutral density filter. Incidentally, shutter speeds are virtually useless during the day with an ND filter.
Bulb mode is an interesting and enjoyable means of long exposure photography. With a little practice and creativity there are many photographic projects that can be accomplished. Once it is understood the only thing in the way of fun long exposure photographs is patience. The result will be worth the time spent.