How to Use a Limited Palette to Make Luminous Watercolor Paintings
How to Get Started With Watercolors
So, have you decided to try watercolor painting and aren't sure where to begin? If you ask me, going to the art store these days is a bit overstimulating. That's why I try to keep things simple. Here are a few things to think about before tackling a project.
My number one rule is this: Use a limited palette with transparent pigments.
Using a limited palette means you use a few transparent pigments that blend beautifully and cleanly. Why should you do this?
- It keeps costs down while allowing you to create every color you could possibly want, including dark values and luminous light values.
- It allows you to get to know the "personality" of each of these colors, as different pigments have different attributes and combine differently with one another.
- If you're using 25 different pigments, it's impossible to get to know them or how to use them in the best way. But with 7-9 pigments, it's a definite possibility.
Transparent Pigments to Use
- Aureolin yellow
- Rose Madder
- Cobalt Blue
- Viridian Green
- Windsor Green
- Windsor Blue
- Alizarin Crimson
How to Work With and Create Different Colors
- To get a beautiful glow to your paper, use aureolin yellow. This is probably my most used pigment. It will tint the paper just enough to give it warmth, but it won't look yellow. It's great for skin tones, landscapes, and paintings you want filled with light.
- To get a beautiful burnt sienna, mix aureolin yellow and rose madder. You will get an approximation of burnt sienna that positively glows. You'll never go back to burnt sienna again.
- To mix beautiful browns, use rose madder and aureolin yellow in different ratios. Then, add in cobalt or Windsor blues to attain an array of colors from light warm browns to deep, cool browns.
- Greys are dynamite in watercolor paintings—that is, if you know how to mix them. Experiment with mixing luminous neutrals by using combinations of viridian green and alizarin crimson or aurolean yellow, rose madder and Windsor Blue.
- The last three pigments are staining: Windsor green, Windsor Blue, and alizarin crimson. This means that they "stain" your paper and are hard to take off. They are also the pigments you want to use to create your darkest darks. You can get deep, velvety colors while still keeping the colors transparent, not muddy.
- Have fun with your colors and play with them. Don't judge yourself, but simply dedicate yourself to experimenting with the pigments on one whole pad of watercolor paper before you try anything more.
What Watercolor Papers to Use
Watercolor paper comes in different weights and different textures.
1. Paper Poundage
The poundage determines how thick the paper is, which translates into how much of a beating it can take. If you are someone who soaks the paper, puts paint on, takes it off, and scrapes it again, you want at least a good 140 lb paper—and probably a 300 lb paper.
- The higher the weight, the less taping you have to do. A 300 lb paper will buckle much less with copious amounts of water than a 90 lb paper.
- I suggest beginning with a 140 lb paper, as it is a middle of the road item in both weight and cost. The higher the weight, the higher the cost per sheet.
2. Paper Texture
The different textures in the watercolor paper will largely affect how the paint goes on, how it feels, and how it dries. This is why you need to try them out before you commit yourself to an entire pad.
- Hot Press: This is the smoothest watercolor paper you can buy. Use it for a perfectly clear sky, a smooth petal, or a reflection in the glass.
- Cold Press: This is the "go-to" for watercolor paper. It has a good all-around texture for just about all of your painting needs. The texture allows the pigment to soak in but still come up nicely. This feature allows for good wet-on-wet or wet-on-dry technique. If you buy a pad of paper, I recommend this one.
- Rough: This is a fun paper to play with. It will not allow all of the pigment to get into the nooks and crannies. The result is that the water, sky, or sunlit grass you paint will have a bit of "sparkle" where the white paper shows through.
What to Look for in a Paintbrush
Go easy on yourself and, again, keep it simple. You need just a couple of brushes to learn how they feel then expand from there to try other varieties.
- You will need a wash brush, 1" or so. Try to use sable.
- Generally, the higher-priced brushes are better. Not always, but most of the time.
- Make sure you try it out at the store. What you are looking for is the brush's ability to hold water. When you fill the brush with water and pigment and then pull it along the paper, you should have a nice full mark of paint all the way to the end.
- If your brush runs dry halfway through, you want to choose a different one. Also, a round brush would be good.
- Do not get tiny brushes! When you start, get medium-sized to larger brushes. Detail brushes should come later!
There is every kind of palette that you can imagine on the market, so look them over to see what's best for you. I like large ones with big areas to mix paints in. I have also used cupcake tins, plates—you name it, I used it.
Just find something that fits you. They're all pretty much the same as far as cleaning. I use plastic ones generally, but I know painters who swear by glass or fiberglass. I don't recommend fancy ones that keep your paint moist for watercolor painters.
Painting Books I Recommend
You can find literally hundreds of books and YouTube videos showing you watercolor techniques. I recommend two books, however, out of all that I've seen the past 15 years or so, because they go beyond technique to show "how" you should paint a picture, "why" to paint a picture, and "what" you should be looking for and attempting as you begin your artistic journey. They are both indispensable in my collection.
Don't Get Overwhelmed—Get Started
So there you are—these basic supplies will get you started on your way. Paint supplies are expensive, so wait and experiment before you buy a ton of stuff. I have a tale of caution for you from my experience with students.
One student I had went out to buy her 'limited palette" of paint and basic supplies, and came back with everything known to man pertaining with watercolor supplies. I didn't even know what to do with some of the products. One I remember, though, was glitter medium! Remember, when you go into the vast, tempting cornucopia of art stores, you don't need expensive or copious supplies to get started. You need paint, brushes, paper, and something to paint on. Get going, and as you paint more, you'll learn more about what you need and can purchase it then. You don't need it all now.
Go out there and start painting!