11 Tips for Painting Outdoors With Oils
Why Should I Try Painting Outdoors?
Painting outdoors, also known as en plein air, enables you to directly observe and study the many different effects of light in nature. Light makes a huge impact on the subject's appearance, affecting the color, direction, and angle. In fact, only when outdoors can an artist fully observe the effects of linear and atmospheric perspective and become proficient and successful in capturing them.
As you get started, keep these 11 tips in mind for a more enjoyable and successful experience.
1. Outdoor Painting Equipment: Keep It Light
Select your equipment by focusing on effectiveness and portability. Keep in mind that fancy equipment does not necessarily improve the painting.
Perhaps the simplest set up you can use is a wooden sketchbox, held on your knees while sitting on a small, folding stool. The panel is held on the open lid. To prevent the box from sliding off your knees it’s a good idea to have a belt or strap attached to the box and looped around your waist.
Painting standing up requires a lightweight but sturdy tripod-type easel, or a wooden French easel. The easel should be well-made and not wobble once set up.
To protect from the sun, wear a hat with a brim or visor, avoid sunglasses as they can distort your sense of color.
Then, of course, you’ll need paint, brushes, mineral spirit, paper towel, or rag, and a palette.
2. Choose Your Point of View
- To select and more easily visualize your subject, use a view-finder or some other framing device. Try studying several viewing positions, and choose the best one by making a few value studies and sketches.
- Position your easel in a way that the painting, and possibly the palette, are in the shadows. It is very difficult to correctly judge colors in direct sunlight.
- If you use an arm palette, hold it in such a way that it is not stricken by direct sunlight.
3. Start Small
It is advisable for beginning outdoor painters to work on smaller-sized paintings and to quickly render small studies.
You can quickly create complete and effective studies by portraying the basic tonal and color construction features of a subject.
Small color sketches are an excellent way to paint with minimal equipment.
How about you?
Do you feel comfortable painting outdoors?
4. Establish the Value Arrangement First
Shadows and dark masses can change significantly in one hour.
Get started on your painting by establishing the size and position of the value masses. This is especially useful on a sunny day when shadows change quickly.
I always start by toning the canvas. To do this, rub in a mid-value tone over the entire surface.
Then, I like to clean out the parts where my light areas are going to be by wiping with a rag dampened with paint thinner.
After that, make a simple drawing and start painting the darker darks with thin paint.
5. How to Choose the Toning Color
As the ground color for your tone, pick a color that is compatible with the subject’s final color harmony, thin it with mineral spirits, and rubbing it over the entire surface of the canvas, leaving no white spots.
When in doubt about what color to use, burnt sienna is always a good choice.
Clear out the lights by wiping them with a rag slightly dampened with paint thinner. Then put in the darker tones thinly.
This enables you to establish the tonal arrangement at the beginning, before the light changes.
6. Step Back Often
Using a stand-up easel enables the painter to step back to judge the painting from a distance.
You can judge colors and proportions more accurately when you step back
If you use an arm palette, you can keep mixing the colors as you step back.
From a distance, you can see your painting as a complete unit and you can judge and compare the individual parts.
7. Apply Color Respecting the Value Masses
Mix colors and apply them directly to the value masses, making sure you use colors of the correct tone.
Variety of colors is good, but keep your colors grouped in dark masses and light masses, keep squinting to make sure your colors are not too light or too dark.
Brushstrokes of the wrong value, in relation to the area where they are applied, may break the shape and ruin the value structure of your design.
Remember that intense colors in a picture can look much brighter when balanced against areas of more neutral colors.
8. Beware of Muddy Colors
When you paint outdoors with oils, you are bound to work wet-on-wet.
Keep in mind that when applying paint over a wet layer, the brush will pick up some of the paint below, and the next brushstroke you put down will have some of that mixed in.
It is essential to frequently wipe the excess paint from the brush and to use lean brushes for the lightest, brightest colors.
If too many brushstrokes are made without wiping the brush clean, the colors will become grayed out and look muddy.
9. Leave Brushstrokes Alone
Make brushstrokes with intent and let them be. Every single brushstroke adds something to the appearance of the painting and to the personal effect that the painter has envisioned.
Avoid blending, scumbling, and other fussy brushstrokes that will erase spontaneity and freshness from the painting.
When possible, use as few strokes as possible to paint form.
10. Use Atmospheric Perspective to Your Advantage
Atmospheric perspective allows the artist to introduce changes of color and value that make subjects recede into the background.
As you look at things in the distance, a curtain of atmosphere builds up between you and the distant objects. Colors and tonal values begin to change, in some weather conditions, quite drastically. Squint at your subject, and notice how things in the distance appear lighter in value, and duller/cooler in color.
As you paint, push a little these changes, exaggerate slightly the shifts in value and temperature in order to render depth effectively.s
It’s only through the direct study of these different conditions outdoors that artists will become proficient and successful in capturing them.
11. Enjoy the Process!
Outdoor painting is challenging to say the least, but remember that it's more about the process than the finished product. Don't expect to go home with the masterpiece of your life. Take it as a learning experience and an opportunity to make some good studies to be used as a reference for some studio paintings. This mentality will make the first few times you paint outdoors much more enjoyable!