How to Mix Skin Tones in Transparent Watercolor
Simple works great!
Mixing Skin Tones Can Be Easy!
In the watercolor self portrait I started my Moleskine watercolor journal with, I kept my skin tone recipe simple. The magic color I used was in the very first set of Winsor & Newton Cotman watercolors I bought -- Burnt Sienna. It's part of an Earth Tone Trio that comes up in almost all watercolor sets because the colors are all incredibly useful for beginners and experts alike.
Burnt Sienna is the magic color for Caucasian skin tones in good light. It's an earth color, a reddish brown that goes down to quite deep darks if you're doing someone with a tan or a black person with a ruddy complexion. What I modified it with was mostly the other two colors in the Classic Earth Tone Trio, found in so many different watercolor sets that I know traditionalists and teachers think of them as essentials. The other two are Yellow Ochre and Burnt Umber.
In the shadows I mixed a little Ultramarine Blue to cool it. That's another color that's in almost every 12 color set.
For lips, I usually add just a touch of Alizarin Crimson to the mix. I did here too. Other cool reds will work like Permanent Rose, or any Magenta or Quinacridone Rose. But what you probably have on hand in a starter set is Alizarin Crimson. If a person's sunburned, you can use the lips mix to warm up all the sunburned areas too.
My first successful watercolor portraits were miniatures about 3/4" tall. In using a Winsor & Newton field box, I wound up with a very tiny size 0 sable round brush... much more suited to details and small things than big washes. I sketched the shape of the head and placed the features with faint graphite pencil lines, just to get the person's proportions right in an erasable way. Then I went in with the superfine pointed brush and washed the entire face and neck with a thin wash of Burnt Sienna.
While that wash was damp, I'd mix a little shadow color, putting in Burnt Umber or Ultramarine in the puddle of thinned Burnt Sienna and start loosely modeling the face with the broader shadows. I waited till that completely dried to get smaller shadows in.
Part of the trick with watercolor portraits is getting soft edges to shadows. Faces aren't usually crisscrossed with the hard-edged "tide marks" you get painting wet on dry. So it helps to work fast while the paint is damp but not completely dried, then tilt the little painting so the pigment migrates away from the edge of the shadow toward the edge where hair meets skin. That way any strong tide mark will get painted over with a hair shadow. Even on people with very light hair, you can get away with that because there's usually a shadow where hair meets skin.
Yellow Ochre makes a perfectly good natural blonde hair color too, just don't fill in the hair area solidly with it. The trick of using these three earth tones is to thin them down to washes. Watercolor will dry two steps lighter than it looks when it's wet, but if you use relatively opaque colors like Yellow Ochre, you can wind up blotting out any highlights. They can be regained, but that's more difficult and harder to get in the freshness of first strokes.
Later on I discovered that other reddish brown colors like Winsor & Newton Light Red, English Red, Iron Oxide Red and so on will work more or less for Caucasian skin tones. Most of them need to be modified a little -- if they run too reddish then you need to add a little of your dark brown to them, which could be Burnt Umber or Sepia or any of several other dark browns. The trio really consists of a gold color, a reddish orangy brown, and a dark brown that's not reddish.
Recently I discovered that Quinacridone Burnt Orange works just about as well as Burnt Sienna and has the advantage of being extremely transparent. It's a little brighter, so I either thin it more or modify it by cooling with a little dark brown unless the person's got a very ruddy complexion. Test the reddish brown colors you have in your watercolor box if you don't have Burnt Sienna.
Try doing a series of cartoon faces. Use each of your earth reds or reddish browns as a thin wash on one -- I'm talking smileys here, you don't need to stop to do complete small portraits. Just make sure the smiley has kissy lips so you have some lips outlined to get Lip Tone right. Use the same paper for these color tests that you plan for the actual portrait. You can do a crescent of shadow color around the right side and under what would be the smiley's chin to see how dark and what color you want the shadows in each test. Do the shading color while the paint is damp, not shining wet any more but not dry either -- that'll be good practice for avoiding tide marks while adding shadows.
Winsor & Newton Artist's Field Box
Skin Tones Vary!
Above is a photo of the watercolor set I used for my self portrait. I recommend the Winsor & Newton Artist's Field Box for anyone, it's the best pocket set there is and its palette will teach you some interesting things about color. Unfortunately the Artist grade version includes Raw Umber, which isn't as dark as Burnt Umber, but it has black -- so you have to mix the deeper dark browns with Burnt Sienna and Ivory Black or with Raw Umber and Ivory Black. The Cotman (student) version comes in the same box and has no black, does have Burnt Umber and two greens, a blue-green and a Sap Green that's closer to yellow.
I added two colors to my W&N field box because I started to find them indispensible. Permanent Rose is very good for a slight blush. It doesn't go as dark as Alizarin Crimson, which is a very rich deep dark red, but it makes brighter pinks. If a lady's wearing lipstick and you want to get pink lipstick looking true, Permanent Rose will give a better color. It'll also mix well with Ultramarine to get that bright purple blouse she's wearing. Alizarin makes a dull purple that's more grayed, but at least it gets a purple.
The trick of getting an accurate skin tone is in relation to everything else in the painting and what color the light is. There is no real "Flesh" color in nature. The crayon usually labeled Flesh or Light Flesh now that people are more multicultural about it is actually a very light orange. Yep. It's orange and white mixed. So if you're only using spectrum bright colors, try using orange thinned very light and then add just the merest touch of blue to it to mute it and turn it into "orangy brown" comparable to Burnt Sienna. If it's not red enough, add a touch of red. If it's too pink, add a touch more yellow.
What works is to take orange and thin it down until it's so light it's like pale pink, then start going browner in some areas and pinker in others. If you have someone with a very golden complexion, adding a touch of Yellow Ochre or Quinacridone Gold to the mix will get a glowing golden-tinged skin tone. This is also good for a light tan. Don't use it by itself though. Asian people are not actually yellow-skinned.
Asian complexions are often pretty close to Caucasian ones. If they lean more golden, sometimes that's a matter of having a bit of a tan and other times it's complexion. But either way, you won't get a good skin tone with Yellow Ocher as its base. It works better to start with Burnt Sienna for everyone.
Raw Sienna is a better modifier for more golden complexions, because it's a little more ruddy than Yellow Ochre.
You can mix skin tones just using three primary colors -- red, yellow and blue. The trick of getting those to look natural is the balance between them and exactly which colors you chose to make up that triad. One of the reasons I added Permanent Rose to my field box is that it now gives me the first primary triad Winsor & Newton recommends: Lemon Yellow, Permanent Rose and Ultramarine.
It's possible to get a full range of colors using only those three colors. Permanent Rose is a purplish red, close to Magenta. Lemon Yellow is a very strong green-leaning yellow, and Ultramarine leans a little toward purple but will give a good "sap green" looking green with Lemon Yellow. That trio gives good oranges and bright purples too. Most times if you try a red, a yellow and a blue together, the red is a little orangy and the blue's a bit too greenish so you wind up with gray instead of purple.
If I want a very bright orange, I mix warm (orangy) Winsor Yellow with the Winsor Red, which is a bit brighter and more orangy than Alizarin Crimson. They make good oranges. Why would I want a bright orange in a skin tone? Or even worse, a bright purple?
Because sometimes that's what it looks like. Try looking at someone across from the campfire next time you're camping out. They're lit from the side or below and the highlights on their faces are a bright orange -- whether they were super pale Caucasions or they're deepest dark brown, you'll get orange highlights in campfire light. The shadows may look actually blue, partly because the highlights are so bright an orange that the afterimage of the orange makes them bluer. Blue-violet shadows look entirely natural in the evening in warm golden light.
But daylight leans a little yellow too. So what light you're looking at is going to affect what colors to choose. The more you move toward a spectrum orange, the more likely it'll seem like the light is very yellow-golden and warm. Incandescent lighting is like that too.
Fluorescent light will cool the skin tones and make browns more effective than oranges... but they don't look brown that thin. They look beige. Make sure you get the value right no matter what shade of brown or orange you use for a base skin tone.
Then start mixing intuitively -- this is why lots of test patches are good. I always keep some bits of bright white card on me and while painting any person, I'll test my mixes to see if they're the right color and if they're too dark or light. Too light and I have to add more paint. Too dark, I need to add more water.
What's around the face will cast reflected color into it. If someone's out in a bright green forest, you may actually see bright green areas in the shadows on their face. Reflected light bounces in more prominently where the face is shadowed. If they're wearing a bright red shirt, the underside of their chin may look a surprising pinkish color -- because light from above is bouncing off the shirt. Look closely at the person and their surroundings.
Try to modify the skin tone colors with the same pigments you use to paint the rest of the scene. If you want a little blue to cool the shadows, then use the same blue that you're using in the black and blue mix on the black leather jacket (which I did on my self portrait). If you're using a red to warm the lips, use the same red to do flowers in the background or to do their red t-shirt. The simpler and cleaner you keep mixes, the brighter they are.
But if you want skin to look natural and not super bright, then the fact that multiple pigments mix more dull can work to your advantage. Complex mixtures may give exactly the right shade for a shadow in a scene, but it'll still unify the painting more if they're the same colors you used in the rest of the painting.
Shadows are usually cooler (more toward violet) than highlights. Thus, the dark brown like Burnt Umber is less reddish and less yellowish than the Burnt Sienna, so it works as a shadowing color. So will mixing Ultramarine into the Burnt Sienna.
If you want to try a very cool earth tones palette, you can use Yellow Ochre, Burnt Sienna, Burnt Umber and Payne's Grey to paint anything -- it'll come out muted and soft, sort of vintage looking, but the Payne's Grey is blue enough to read as a blue sky or reflected sky on water and to make greens with the Yellow Ochre.
It is possible to just use the spectrum brights and mingle them on the paper if you're into that style. The main thing is to remember the base skin tone will begin with orange thinned down very light and just lean toward yellow or pink here and there, while all three primaries (or anything and its complement) will make grays or browns. How much that shows depends on how you want the painting to look. Sometimes it's cool to do the whole painting in pure high intensity colors. Other times it's fun to have it all grayed out, browned, muted and soft.
Keep your color choices in relation to the color choices you make for everything else in the painting. Don't use pale watery color in the face and then bold full saturation colors in everything else, but do keep the skin tones (if light) paler than the full intensity of that color except in shadows.
Finally... try using Burnt Sienna as a monochrome color for a portrait. Do someone with brown hair and brown eyes if you really want this to look true, but it helps to see it in action. You'll be surprised how effective it is -- and how it makes a good base for anything else to adjust to the lighting, individual skin tone, what they're wearing, hair color and painting style.