Learn How to Paint an Acrylic Landscape: Step-by-Step With Examples
Do You Want to See an Acrylic Painting Come to Life?
Learn how to create a landscape painting with acrylics on canvas, starting from a preliminary pencil sketch and a color study!
What You'll Need
9"x12" stretched canvas
Cadmium yellow light
Paper towel or rag
Cadmium yellow medium
1. Plan the Composition
Start the creating process by sketching a drawing of the general composition of the landscape, including all the elements that you want to incorporate.
- Tip: Go digital! Use an image of the pencil drawing, import it into the Procreate app (or a similar sketching app) on your tablet, and color it.
2. Think About the Compositional Elements
In my painting, I strived to create a composition that included the following elements:
- A foreground field
- A path tapering in the distance, showing linear perspective
- Three trees in the middle ground
- Water from a river or a lake behind the trees
- A field with trees in the distance
- Overlapping trees with the other elements of the landscape to show positioning and relationship
- Mountains in the distance
- Radiating lines on the ground and clouds to carry the eye through the painting
- A consistent light source, as far as direction and color of the light
3. Prepare Your Palette
How to Use Your Palette Effectively
When you squeeze out the colors, get into the habit of organizing them the same way on the palette to make color mixing faster and easier. I like to have my white always in the upper left corner and my blues and greens on the left side from coolest to warmest. I have my yellows and reds on the upper side, from warmest and lighter to coolest and darkest. However, every artist is different, and you can come up with your own way to arrange them.
How to Use Water Efficiently
It’s important to have water available. A big jug of water is handy for moistening the brushes and diluting the paint, and for rinsing the brushes between colors.
- Change the water frequently to keep it clean. Some artists use two jugs, one for painting and one for cleaning the brushes.
- I like to keep my paint moist at all times, so I spray water with a nebulizer on the paint globs on my palette as soon as I squeeze them out as well as throughout the painting session.
Keep Paper Towels Handy!
Paper towels are essential for absorbing excess water from brushes and for wiping off the paint before you rinse the brush. They also come in handy to wipe off mistakes before the paint dries up.
What Brushes Do I Need?
Have several brushes of different sizes available. Start with the bigger brushes, and move to smaller brushes towards the end of the painting. For this project, I used my brush set. It contains some very nicely assorted brushes, and the quality is very good for the price. D'Artisan Shoppe
- I painted the bigger shapes with a 3/4" flat brush, then moved on to a 1/2" flat and smaller round and filbert brushes for small details.
- I added some textural touches at the end with a painting knife.
When you go out and paint, try and forget what you have before you – a tree, a house, a field or whatever.
Merely think, here is a little square of blue, here an oblong of pink, here a streak of yellow, and paint it just as it looks to you, the exact color and shape, until it emerges as your own naive impression of the scene before you.— Claude Monet
Watch the Painting Process
4. Start With a Toned Canvas
Starting on a toned canvas eliminates the issue of having to completely cover the white canvas so you feel the painting is finished.
You can leave specks of the ground color to be seen throughout the painting. Not only it does not look unfinished, but it also makes the painting style look looser and unifies the painting, making it more harmonious.
- I picked a light orange for my tone, nice and warm with the idea that it would add a nice glow to the sunny landscape.
5. Begin Painting
With my pencil sketch and my color study on view, I started painting the landscape. I like to skip the drawing on the canvas because I don’t like to see the drawing lines in the final painting, and it keeps me looser if I draw with the brush.
However, there is nothing wrong with drawing on the canvas. You can use pencil on the dry ground color. If you want to make sure it does not smear when you paint on it, use a spray fixative.
Whatever you can do, or dream you can do, begin it.
Boldness has genius, power, and magic in it.
Begin it now.— Goethe
6. Draw With the Brush
I like to draw loosely with a brush, focusing on placement and proportions. When marking an object, focus on the relationships between that brush mark and the others and observe the negative space between things; it will make the drawing easier.
If you make a wrong mark, wipe it off with the paper towel before it dries or switch to a different color and redo it. Wrong marks may create some confusion for you at this stage, but they can also add interest and color variations in the final product.
Keep the drawing lines loose and colorful.
7. Start Adding Color
Once you have the main compositional shapes in place, start adding color to the different shapes.
- Use a big brush and focus on grouping similar colors together. Leave a little bit of gap between shapes, and don’t cover completely your draw lines.
- Keep in mind that you’ll probably have to paint over each shape two or three more times, so at this stage, it’s not about getting the perfect effect and nailing the perfect color, but more like getting started and putting down color notes.
Since my canvas was full of orange and red tones, I started with the colors that would make the most impact: the blue of the sky and water as well as the greens.
8. Establish the Darks
The light is coming from the upper right corner. This affects all the shadows, especially in the tree masses and the cast shadows of the trees on the ground.
The activity of painting:
A thrilling tussle between the artist’s materials and his inspiration.— Mervyn Levy
9. Fill in the Gaps
Once all areas have been assigned a color, it’s time to start working on more detailed brushwork.
- Switch to a smaller brush and start filling in the gaps in between the bigger brushstrokes from before.
- Cover most of the drawing lines, though I like to leave parts of some drawing lines to be seen peeking through here and there.
- When filling the gap between two shapes of different colors, like a dark and a light area of the grass, it’s a good idea to paint a transitioning color, kind of in the middle between the two.
10. Add Texture
At this point, the surface is all covered in paint and the picture is pretty complete. However, it lacks some texture.
I mixed a few greens on my palette, making sure I had different color ranges: some intense, some dull, some light, and some dark. I applied them to the canvas with the palette knife because I like the thick and loose paint application done with it.
11. Define the Water Surface
Still water is reflective, and it reflects both the landscape and the sky. Some ripples disrupting the reflections convey the idea of a horizontal surface.
12. Look for Final Tweaks
Step back and look at the painting as a whole, is anything jumping out at you as something that looks strange? Are there any unplanned awkward alignment between objects?
For example, at one point I realized that I had the lower edge of the tree canopies lining up with the bottom of the back trees, so I lifted them up so they looked much better.
The more you practice, the more mistakes you make and correct, and soon your confidence will grow.
This new-found confidence will make you more assertive, which is the key to unlocking your full creative potential. Experience is a great thing.— Hashim Akib
13. Leave Your Fears Behind!
Are you getting started on a painting and you are not sure what to do? Are you afraid that it will be a failure, and you will just end up wasting your supplies? Have no fear, even if you end up with a painting that you are not proud of. Just the fact that you did it makes you a richer person and teaches you a lot.
Every single time you paint or draw, you learn something in the process, whether you're conscious of it or not. That is worth the effort on its own, and if you think that you are doing it by yourself, without having to pay a teacher, the cost of the supplies used is not a big cost to pay for the learning experience.
If you enjoy the process and end up with a nice painting, then it’s a total win. But you won’t know the outcome until you try. You can always paint over and change all kinds of things about the painting, even the subject matter. I have painted over many bad paintings myself, sometimes changing portraits into landscapes.
Questions & Answers
I am new to the canvas. Should I clip the canvas onto a board used as a backing?
The typical way of painting on canvas is by stretching it on wooden bars or gluing it to a board or panel.
If you are painting on a canvas sheet that is not attached to any support, it will help if you clip it or tape it to a board as backing, kind of like what you do with watercolor paper.Helpful 4
If I mess up the top half of my painting, after it dries, can I use white gesso, let it dry, and then continue to work on the upper half of my painting?
If you are working with acrylics you can always gesso over a painting (or apart of it) and start from scratch. If you are painting with oils, that is not recommended. Oils are ok over acrylic, but acrylic doesn't go over oils.
If you messed up a part of a painting, you may want to gesso over, or another option is to just paint over. Depending on your painting style, sometimes the "messed up" part underneath can actually provide come specks of color interest to the top layer of the painting.Helpful 6
© 2018 Robie Benve