How to Draw Still Life

Updated on March 9, 2020
Robie Benve profile image

Robie is an artist who loves sharing what she's learned about art and painting in the hope that it might help other creatives.

We all Started Out as Artists

We all drew as children and we were proud of our work. Then one day we became aware of mistakes and limitations in our drawings. That’s a bad day, many people stop drawing altogether.

What a shame when a child labels him or herself “I suck at drawing”. Perfectionists do it more than others, because of the disappointment from the difference of how things look in their head and how they end up looking on paper.

Truth is if you keep drawing it will get better.

The more you draw the most accurate you get at it, no matter your initial skills.

Perseverance is key to good drawing techniques.

How to Set up a Still Life and Complete a Still Life Drawing - Tutorial
How to Set up a Still Life and Complete a Still Life Drawing - Tutorial | Source

Drawing Can Be Challenging

Drawing presents several challenges, even to expert and seasoned artists.

  • How do you get the proportions right?
  • How do you keep some parts from looking out of scale or distorted?
  • How do you make your drawing look realistic and not childish?

Still Life Drawing: Where to Start

To draw a still life the first thing you need to do is finding a still life composition to draw. You can find photos of different objects in magazines, books, or online. However, drawing from life provides the artist with more accurate details and information.

Drawing from a photo is not the same. Try to set up your own composition. The video on the right will give you some great tips on how to do it.

My Still Life Set Up
My Still Life Set Up | Source

How to Set Up a Still Life

Few things to keep in mind while setting up your still life:

  • Look around the house for everyday things, like pots, pans, fruits, vegetables, utensils, etc. If you are a beginner, choose objects with simple shapes; avoid things that are too complicated or ornate. Once you have mastered simple objects you can choose more challenging ones.
  • Have a specific light source, not multiple lamps or overhead lighting, your light should come from one source, and possible not straight down or front. The goal is to get a strong contrast between your highlights and your shades. You can use sunlight, but keep in mind that it changes with time. If you use a lamp, make sure the light from windows is not interfering.
  • When you work with multiple objects, set them up so they overlap. As a general rule avoid placing objects so that their edges barely touch. Overlapping adds visual interest, and defines depths, making clear what is in front and what is in the back. It's ok if a few objects are isolated or a couple barely touch: it's good to keep it varied.
  • Walk around your still life to find the most interesting angle. Even if you are drawing one single object, there are always some views that are better than others. Try taking things out, adding others in, moving and tweaking. Play with the composition until you are satisfied with it.
  • When you are happy with your setup, you can start the fun part: drawing.

The video below provides great tips on how to approach setting up a still life composition.

How to Set Up a Successful Composition for a Still Life

Drawing a Still Life

Before your pencil touches the paper, spend some time looking at your objects and simplify forms. Visualize the basic shapes that you see in each object: circles, squares, triangles, rectangles. Start drawing the basic shapes of each object on the paper, rough them in: draw a circle for an apple, a rectangle for a mug, etc.

Focus on the essential lines only, without too much detail. Draw with a light pencil, most of these initial lines will be erased later.

Drawing the Right Proportions Is Very Important

Make sure you maintain the relations between heights and widths, and to make sure the directions of the lines are consistent with those of the models.

Look at the saddle angles within and around the objects.

The use of a viewfinder, or view catcher, can help you see angles and lines better. Viewfinders are pretty inexpensive to buy, but you can make your own with supplies you have at home. I made mine using matting board.

Check angles and lines and how high each object is compared with the others. Look at how edges and lines intersect each other.
Check angles and lines and how high each object is compared with the others. Look at how edges and lines intersect each other. | Source

Keep Comparing Each Part of the Drawing to the Others

Hold your pencil in front of you and check for the angles of the lines and how high each object is compared with the others. Look at how edges and lines intersect each other.

Replicate the same angles and relationships on paper, but keeping it loose and sketchy.

Begin adding more shapes to create the illusion of roundness, keeping it sketchy.

Still Life. Begin adding more shapes to create the illusion of roundness.
Still Life. Begin adding more shapes to create the illusion of roundness. | Source

Make Your Pencil Darker Only When You Are Happy With the Drawing

Once you have defined all basic shapes, start to refine the objects making the lines neater and erasing the preliminary guidelines. Define curves more precisely.

Always be aware of plane changes, lighting, and contours that affect forms so that you can render forms correctly.

When you are happy with your drawing, erase all earlier sketch lines and continue to refine the objects.

Complete the details and darken the lines.

Still Life drawing of object outlines
Still Life drawing of object outlines | Source

When you draw a line partially hidden behind objects, make sure the line on one side is consistent with the line on the other side, checking with a pencil or a

Drawing lines of partially hidden objects
Drawing lines of partially hidden objects | Source

Render Depth in Drawing

Until now the objects in the drawing are only empty shapes, completely flat and not appearing to sit on any surface.

We can guess the spatial relationship between objects because of the overlapping masses, but there are no shades and no indication of the surface on which they sit.

To better define the planes, I drew a horizontal line behind the composition, to show where the table and the wall meet.

Still Life Drawing
Still Life Drawing | Source

Drawing Shadow Shapes

There are shapes that are formed by the light as it hits the objects. To see them better squint your eyes. With the filter provided by your eyelashes, you’ll be able to see shapes of darks and lights.

Look for all shadow shape: within the object itself and the shadow of the object being cast onto something else. They are just as important as the shapes of the object itself. Draw the cast shadows of each object on the plane and on other objects.

Establish the main areas of light and shade by lightly toning in the shadow shapes into a big two-dimensional value shape.

Develop the darkest areas and strong lines of the objects. Find the darkest darks and the lightest lights and start building up the main tonal areas based on the structure.

Still Life Drawing with shades and darker outlines.
Still Life Drawing with shades and darker outlines. | Source

Use a Fixative to Protect Your work

I'm stopping here with this still life, but you can continue adding more details and refining the tones and shades.

Keep comparing darks and lights and you'll be able to see what needs adjusting.

When you are done, spray your drawing with a fixative to prevent smudges.

I like to use a workable fixative to spray my drawing when I reach a stage in which I'm happy with what I have so far and nothing needs to be erased. The workable fixative protects the work done so far, and you can keep working on your drawing, darkening tones, or adding details without the risk of smudging your previous marks.

Note: use any spray fixative outdoors following the directions on the bottle.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

Questions & Answers

  • Where did you learn to draw?

    I'm a self-taught artist. I read books, watch videos, and take some classes with artists in my city.

© 2013 Robie Benve


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • profile image

      Josh Lao 

      5 weeks ago

      This is very useless

    • profile image

      Ava backstone 

      2 months ago

      Nice job, keep up the great work

    • profile image

      uapfa malitsha 

      3 months ago

      thank you for providing such an important information

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      3 months ago from Ohio

      Thank you Joshua, so happy to hear you found my article helpful!

    • profile image


      3 months ago

      This was really helpful.

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      9 months ago from Ohio

      Hi Terra, keep up with the great work! :)

    • profile image

      terra mosley 

      9 months ago

      thank you! i think it is kind of hard to do because my school dosent allow us to look at videos or anything like that. but i am still trying and almost done

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      9 months ago from Ohio

      Thanks a lot Terra Mosley! Best of luck with your art studies!

    • profile image

      terra mosley 

      9 months ago

      i really like this my teacher assighed this as an art assighnment i really like it

    • profile image

      Terra Mosley 

      9 months ago

      I think it is awesome

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      10 months ago from Ohio

      Not yet, planning on expanding my now miser youtube channel soon. Thanks for the incentive. :)

    • profile image

      Puma basket platform 

      10 months ago

      Can it be seen on youtube ,sorry?????????

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      21 months ago from Ohio

      Hi Roshana, I have not created a video of this drawing (yet, maybe one day); the youtube video in the article is by someone else and shows how to setup a still life composition.

    • profile image


      21 months ago

      It can be seen in YouTube ?

    • profile image


      23 months ago

      Hi. I just found this tutorial ... it is perfect for a beginner like me. Thank you ... thank you. You have given me a tool that will help me on my journey.

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      2 years ago from Ohio

      Hi Bill, I love the pencil sharpener angle, brilliant! Thanks for commenting and long live the pencil sharpener owners! lol

    • profile image

      Bill Hamshere 

      2 years ago

      i am mesmerized by the technical skill used to produce such fabulous work show above. now i have inspiration for my school art project on the pencil sharpener. i have studied the pencil sharpen for many hours and i am fascinated by it. my love goes out to all the pencil sharpener owners out there

    • profile image


      3 years ago

      its... good

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      3 years ago from Ohio

      Awesome to hear that Amali Megala, glad you found my hub useful. :) Happy Drawing! :)

    • profile image

      Amali Megala 

      3 years ago

      your instructions regarding still life drawing are very useful to me for my practice. thank you very much.

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      4 years ago from Ohio

      Thanks a lot aesta1, like all things drawing gets better with practice. Stick with it and you'll be amazed by the progress.

      It does not take much, 15 minutes a day is better than nothing.

      Quick sketches and unfinished drawings are great learning tools.

      Thanks for stopping by and happy drawing! :)

    • aesta1 profile image

      Mary Norton 

      4 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      Love the shadows in your still life. I still need lots of practice.

    • Kristen Howe profile image

      Kristen Howe 

      5 years ago from Northeast Ohio

      My pleasure Robie. It's good therapy for the soul as well.

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      5 years ago from Ohio

      Thanks so much Kristen for your kind words! I don't know if I am particularly gifted and artistic, but I sure enjoy every bit of art making and I would love to see everyone give it a try, so I try to share what I know hoping it could inspire somebody to start drawing or painitng. I found my peace source in making art. Thanks again!

    • Kristen Howe profile image

      Kristen Howe 

      5 years ago from Northeast Ohio

      Robie, great art lesson here on drawing still life. You're very gifted and artistic. Voted up for this great hub!

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      6 years ago from Ohio

      I hope you will find (or have found already) the courage to dive into artistic creation, jenza20. Remember, it's not about the art you make, it's about the creative process. Enjoy every minute of it, even when you don't like the outcome (it happens!)

      Thanks for your comment! :)

    • jenza20 profile image

      Jennifer Moore 

      6 years ago from UK

      Wow, I've just stumbled on your hubs as I love art but have little confidence in my art skills. Your tutorials are fantastic - I am so ready to give art another go now. Thank you for such detailed hubs. Pure brilliant!

    • profile image


      6 years ago

      I just loved your tutorial, it was awesome and filled with golden nuggets. Learned a lot. How about a 2nd part, on painting still lift, the best thing I found on that topic was this video so far:

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      6 years ago from Ohio

      Glad you found my drawing tutorial useful DRG Da Real Grinc! You are very welcome. :)

    • DRG Da Real Grinc profile image

      Felix J Hernandez 

      6 years ago from All over the USA

      Awesome tutorial, I learned some important things. Thank you for the insight!

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      7 years ago from Ohio

      Hi rgalloway56, I don't have any hubs on drawing portraits (yet!), but many of the tips for still life drawing can be safely applied for portraits too. Even people are a combination of shapes, lines, darks, and lights. Thanks for stopping by! :)

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      I loved this Hub! I love pencil drawing, but never really had any training in it. Do you have any Hubs on drawing portraits? I want to know how to do it with extreme detail.

      Thanks for the great Hub!

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      7 years ago from Ohio

      to amandajoyshapiro, you asked if I teach and the answer is no, I don't teach. But I don't exclude the possibility. :)

      Have fun with your drawing!

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      7 years ago from Ohio

      Thanks for all the congrats and compliments on this hub of mine, they are very appreciated! :))) I wrote it from an Exclusive title, and it goes to show that even the deeply doubted Exclusive titles have a chance once in a while.

    • Tonipet profile image

      Tonette Fornillos 

      7 years ago from The City of Generals

      Very beautiful tips, Robie. I used to draw comics when I was little and I couldn't remember why I stopped. Today, though I can still sketch, I can't say I'm better, lol. Your tips are great. What a passionate artist you are, it takes one such patience to draw still life images.

      If you're going to ask me if I can make one like that - I You're just wonderful! Thank you. Cheers! :=)-Tonette

    • profile image

      smanna hub com 

      7 years ago

      I think what you have described here it is easy understandable for an unskilled person. It is usable for beginners also.

      Thanks for sharing.

      Subhendu Manna

    • joyce31202 profile image

      Joyce Ann Reynolds 

      7 years ago from Macon

      Congrats on writing the Hub of the Day. This is an informative work with nicely drawn examples. Keep up the good work.

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      7 years ago from Ohio

      Yay, I got "hub of the day"! What a grrrreat surprise to find out, and thank you every one for the wonderful and generous comments! It's such a great feeling to read that you found my hub useful and easy to follow. Feeling really grateful right now, one of the best feelings of all.

      Ciao e grazie. :))

    • Horatio Plot profile image

      Horatio Plot 

      7 years ago from Bedfordshire, England.

      I'm an ex, "I suck at drawing", child. But I almost want to pick up a pencil. Congrats on HOTD.

    • Toytasting profile image

      Toy Tasting 

      7 years ago from Mumbai

      Robie, Thank you for sharing this. I love drawing and this will help me a long way as I am teaching my little one to draw. Congratulations on HOTD, well deserved. Cheers!

    • prasetio30 profile image


      7 years ago from malang-indonesia

      I love drawing and your tips are useful for us. Thanks for writing and sharing with us. Voted up!


    • Kathryn Stratford profile image


      7 years ago from Windsor, Connecticut

      Congrats on winning HOTD! This is a wonderful topic, and I like how you walked us through this, and provided photos to back it up. I look forward to trying this out at some point.

    • rebeccamealey profile image

      Rebecca Mealey 

      7 years ago from Northeastern Georgia, USA

      The way you explain this and show it illustrated is very cool. Thanks so much for sharing and congratulations!

    • Tom Schumacher profile image

      Tom Schumacher 

      7 years ago from Huntington Beach, CA

      Congrats on the hub of the day! The tips you provided are useful, especially for beginners. Drawing proportions and adding shading can be difficult, but with practice anyone, in my opinion, can perfect these techniques you mentioned. Voted up!

    • amandajoyshapiro profile image


      7 years ago

      You are really talented and explained the process carefully. No wonder this hub is featured on the homepage! Congrats. I took some art classes in high school and still like to draw, but not as often as back then. Do you teach?

    • Marcy Goodfleisch profile image

      Marcy Goodfleisch 

      7 years ago from Planet Earth

      There are so many good tips in this one hub! I'd never thought about the idea of using only one light source for a still life, but it makes perfect sense. Congratulations on your HOTD! Very deserved! Voted up and sharing!

    • Your Cousins profile image

      Your Cousins 

      7 years ago from Atlanta, GA

      The best tip for me was: "Before your pencil touches the paper, spend some time looking at your objects and simplify forms." Instead of diving right in and being disappointed with what I come up with, I need to take the time to really study the objects and visualize what I want my final product to be before I start drawing. Great HOTD.

    • rose-the planner profile image

      rose-the planner 

      7 years ago from Toronto, Ontario-Canada

      A very interesting and informative hub! Great tutorial, thank you for sharing. (Voted up) -Rose

    • whonunuwho profile image


      7 years ago from United States

      Nice hub and well done. Basic drawing skill must be honed and will come about in time. Thanks for sharing this neat work. whonu

    • anatomynotes profile image

      Edmund Custers 

      7 years ago

      Interesting! I use to draw a lot with pencil. Now I just sketch, scan and continue with Photoshop because I like inking. Drawing is easy for me, the difficult part is shading and shadows. Thanks!

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Congrats, Robie! I always enjoy your art how to hubs :)

    • SidKemp profile image

      Sid Kemp 

      7 years ago from Boca Raton, Florida (near Miami and Palm Beach)

      Thanks, years ago, I sketched objects and enjoyed it. But I never got as far as putting together still-life scenes. You've inspired me - I may give it a try.

      Congratulations on Hub of the Day, and thanks for encouraging the artist in all of us to grow.

    • Glimmer Twin Fan profile image

      Claudia Mitchell 

      7 years ago

      Very cool. You make it look so easy. I enjoy drawing, but I'm afraid I'm not very good at it. Nice hub. Congrats on your hub of the day.

    • StephanieBCrosby profile image

      Stephanie Bradberry 

      7 years ago from New Jersey

      Your hub is really helpful. I have no problem replicating drawings that have already made something 3 dimensional into a drawing. But if I try I cannot put 3 dimensional into 2 dimensional. But this will go a long way in helping me. Thanks for sharing your knowledge.

    • WalterPoon profile image

      Poon Poi Ming 

      7 years ago from Malaysia

      A very timely article to me, just as I was about to learn how to do water-coloring. The best part of this article is that it explains the most basic things to know about drawing still life in such a clear manner. When I drew a long time ago, I always left the shadows until the end. Now I know where my mistake is. Thank you, Robie Benve. A UABI!!!

    • agapsikap profile image


      7 years ago from Philippines

      Takes me back for a little while. Thank you for this wonderful hub.

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      7 years ago from Ohio

      Hi idigwebsites, I'm glad to hear you fount this drawing tutorial easy, that's great feedback. Thanks! :)

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      7 years ago from Ohio

      Hi RTalloni, I agree, gaining some drawing skills can be very beneficial in many circumstances, in art as in eceryday life. Thanks for your comment. :)

    • idigwebsites profile image


      7 years ago from United States

      That's awesome! Well I want to draw for some time but i don't know where to start. Thanks for your tutorial, it seems very easy. :)

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      So glad to see this tutorial that encourages people to practice drawing. The skill is beneficial for many reasons, but many people are afraid of it!

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      7 years ago from Ohio

      Thanks a lot Wesam, and welcome to HP!

    • Wesam Naffaa profile image

      Wesam Naffaa 

      7 years ago from Damascus, Syria

      Thank you , good work dear

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      7 years ago from Ohio

      Shyron, I know what you mean by being the time to return books to the library and not being been close to done with them! Thank God for online renewal! :))

    • Shyron E Shenko profile image

      Shyron E Shenko 

      7 years ago from Texas

      Yes Robie, caricatures is exactly what I would like to learn to do. I tried at my library and did take out some books.

      I am still trying, but my time is so limited, by the time I go through one book it is time to return all and there is no easy way, or I should say quick way.

      Thanks for you quick response.


    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      7 years ago from Ohio

      Hi Shyron, thanks a lot for the compliments! :))

      Cartoons of real people sounds really interesting, do you mean like caricatures? For now I'm enjoying figure drawing, but cartooning is one of those things I would like to learn too one day. I've seen a lot of books on cartooning at my local library though, you may want to check at your library for instructional books and DVDs, that could be a start. Happy drawing! :)

    • Shyron E Shenko profile image

      Shyron E Shenko 

      7 years ago from Texas

      I love this hub even someone who draws a lot can follow your explanation of how to get started.

      I want to start drawing cartoons of real life people. Can you help with that?

      Thanks voting you UA (useful and awesome

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      7 years ago from Ohio

      Hi Carol, I'm glad you find my hub easy to follow, I tried to keep it simple, so that it might inspire even people that are intimidated by drawing to give it a try. Thanks a lot for your feedback. :)

    • Robie Benve profile imageAUTHOR

      Robie Benve 

      7 years ago from Ohio

      Hi gregoriom, I'm happy that you liked my hub and you find it instructional. Thanks! :)

    • carol7777 profile image

      carol stanley 

      7 years ago from Arizona

      great job here as always. Good and easy to follow instructions for drawing. Which..I happen to find most challenging. Voting up and pinning.

    • gregoriom profile image

      Deninson Mota 

      7 years ago from East Elmhurst, NY

      Simple, but yet very interesting. I love every single part of a drawing. It may seem very easy after a drawing is done, but the truth is that it takes a lot of practice to perfect your skills at drawing. I believe a good drawing is based on the details presented on the drawing itself.

      The things that make a good drawing comes to life are the details you can give to the drawing itself. Not everybody has the eyes of an artist, but this is a skill that can be developed and improved.

      Thank you for such an instructional hub.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)