How to Draw Shading with Hatching and Crosshatching
Glass and Birds Page
Hatching and Crosshatching Shading
In my Glass and Birds Page, above, I used hatching and crosshatching with fine point colored pens to create values and shapes in an orange glass paperweight and around two birds. I used watercolor washes over the ink lines because I was using waterproof pens, so they're a little less distinct but still definitely there. This technique is the essence of the Claudia Nice method of pen and watercolor realism, as found in numerous books she's published.
I recommend Claudia Nice's omnibus volume, Painting with Watercolor, Pen & Ink to cover a wide variety of subjects and techniques in pen and ink with watercolor. It has glass marbles, surf on the shore, animals and birds, people, architecture, a wide variety of textures including rusty metal and shiny chrome effects. So if you like that style of realism, please do consider getting her book or asking your local library to buy it. She has published many others on specific subjects like painting weathered buildings or animals.
The great advantage of hatching and crosshatching for texture is that you can do this technique with anything that can make a mark. It's very effective in ball point pen on the backs of envelopes and junk mail as much as with technical pens on fine Bristol or watercolor paper. You can do it in pencil to shade easily or use colored pencils to blend colors optically in a vibrant powerful way.
I will be using pens for my examples but you can do this as easily with pencils of any kind. Some artists prefer using crosshatching and hatching for all shading, others combine it with other textures for a pleasing effect. It has another advantage -- a gorgeous vintage look reminiscent of old postage stamps, money and newspaper engravings.
Here's basic hatching and crosshatching, a series of examples in pen.
Hatching & Crosshatching Examples
Hatching and crosshatching are easy!
1. Pen, pencil, crayon or any thing that makes linear marks.
2. Paper or something to draw on. Grocery bags, post-it notes and printouts work.
Practicing your hatching and crosshatching skills is a good way to doodle when you're on the phone or waiting for anything. I did a lot of shading bars with crosshatching as a kid, getting used to the feel of it.
I discovered rapidly that it helps to keep the lines short. When filling large areas, doing separate groups of lines is a good hatching or crosshatching texture. Otherwise the long lines are liable to get wobbly and not be that even in how they fill the space, which looks crude and may break up the levels of value you're trying to establish. Here's a typical shading bar doodle done in hatching and crosshatching.
Crosshatching Overall Textures
Line width, interval and line angle
Hatching is a method of shading with lines that are all parallel. They may be broken lines -- this is a way to get lighter values and also to cover large areas where single lines might be hard to keep straight and parallel. When they break entirely into dotted lines, you get the kind of fine light values that money and old postage stamps show in the lighter areas of say, Washington's skin tone. Hatching, and crosshatching are the ways engravers get most of their shading.
Most traditional engravings use expressive curved lines like my Curved Hatching shaded round example. The lines trail off into dotted lines to give lighter values than just lines by themselves can, and become more expressive by curving to suggest the curves of the face. This is difficult and tricky, it takes a lot of practice. If you're seen copying money at work it could even lead people to wonder what you're doing on your off time.
But it's as common to see this sort of thing on old postage stamps if you use a magnifier to look at them. Modern ones are printed more like your printer in full color, but for a good century or more stamps were usually monochrome and shaded entirely by engraving. That's what caught my imagination as a child. I was in awe of artists that could draw and ink Lincoln's face as tiny as my thumbnail to put it on a stamp, even if they did make a plate and then print from it.
The thinner a line you use, the more fine the texture of the hatching. If you put the lines closer together, the hatching will look like a darker value -- the shading at the bottom of my first page of examples shows how interval helps create lighter and darker values. When the line width is thicker than the interval, it can look very dramatically dark.
When the interval between the lines is about the same as the lines themselves, it's medium dark and very pleasing. Two or three line widths between the lines is comfortable. Much more than that and the lines may read as separate distinct objects instead of part of a pattern. So in doing light values over large areas, it's better to separate groups of lines with a bit of space and place them irregularly but evenly over the whole large area.
Do that in two or more layers and you can start shading a big background area even with a reasonably fine point pen and have an even middle value behind the whites and the darks. You can add more layers over that hatching by patches texture, doing the same thing at different angles. I often did backgrounds for pen and ink portraits that way even if I stippled the features to get a smoother texture. Sometimes I crosshatched the faces too.
You can shade anything in ink that you could do in pencil shading. If you're hatching shading in ink, it does help to pencil the outlines of what you're drawing first so as to know where the light and dark areas are. Do a contour drawing of the basic shape and outline it lightly, you'll erase this contour drawing after the inking.
Below is a pencil sketch of my pillbox, which I'm going to ink and shade with hatching and crosshatching using the same ballpoint pen as my examples. I'll show how curved hatching helps make a rounded object look more rounded and how careful parallel line hatching within the crosshatching helps make the cylindrical base look flat -- some of my lines will curve around the form and others not.
Pencil sketch for pillbox drawing
Sketching for crosshatching
I drew my pillbox in perspective, drawing outlines for interior value changes like the bright highlights on the four gems and two shadow areas I wanted to define on the base. I sketched a few loose lines to imply the designs on the complicated little metal object, not in too much detail because I didn't do it large enough to get the details of each design at that angle.
You don't have to get extremely detailed with a contour sketch. Some of the detail can just be added with shading, how much you pencil first is a matter of your taste and personal habits. Your working method may require you to make meticulous extremely detailed diagrams of where every value change goes, or you may be happier with just a few sketch lines and do all the details in ink. It's entirely up to you. Try it both ways if you're not sure.
If you're not comfortable with creating volume and roundness by shading, I would suggest penciling everything because you can always erase and fix a pencil version easier than the inked version.
I could have continued this drawing in pencil and shaded it with crosshatching, but I preferred to keep all my examples in pen for easier scanning.
Pillbox Drawing in Ballpoint on Paper
#25 of 30
Curved Hatching combines with Straight Hatching Lines
On the rounded gem in the center of the pillbox I combined several layers of curved hatching to accentuate its roundness. It's rounded and shiny. So I layered it darker according to how the highlights fell on and within it and shaded one large highlight completely with parallel hatching just to make it a middle value to contrast with the stark white highlights.Those fine curved lines, about a line width apart, make a much smoother texture and help give it volume.
On the base I used curved hatching lines following the curve of the cylinder when I did horizontal ones, but used parallel verticals because the sides are vertical. This helps establish shape as well as light and dark values. Narrow angled hatching gives the tab for opening the pillbox a medium value tone. The curling lines suggesting the patterns on the box gave enough value themselves to keep the light values even. I added some hatching to some areas to show they were darker.
This drawing is just one example of the ways you can shade using hatching and crosshatching. Experiment with it while doodling. Draw five shapes and try filling them with five different values. Try using different thicknesses of lines and lengths of lines to see what will happen. Overlap hatching patterns with other pen textures to see how they combine.
Hatching and crosshatching seem simple, but the key to doing it well is to practice so that your lines are confident, intervals even and repetitive. The more evenly something is crosshatched or hatched, the easier the texture disappears into a perception of light or dark values. Don't use long lines when short lines will do. Don't fill solid areas with wobbly long lines, try to hatch across the shortest distances you can because it's easier to repeat that way.
Try hatching and crosshatching any drawing or design you come up with. The more you do it, the easier it becomes. Shading bars are the perfect time-killing doodle -- until you start drawing real things on your desk because that got too dull.