Drawing Faces in Charcoal
I’ve been drawing for several decades now and I am still learning new things. The face has so many planes and shapes that each one presents it’s own challenges and learning opportunities. When I first went to college in my early twenties I was instructed to buy charcoal but because we did very little work in it and because it is so messy, I never picked it up again; until, that is, very recently. There is a trick to charcoal and I’m going to share some of that here today.
I can always paint very well with my eyes, but with my hands it doesn’t always work out.
— Kathe Kollwitz
Charcoal Vs Graphite Pencil
I realize that many pencil artists don’t like charcoal because it can be messy and hard to store. For that matter, so can graphite pencils. The problem with graphite pencils is that they photograph so poorly. You worked for hours and days on one drawing, seeing it as dark and rich but when photographed or scanned it appears silvery grey and not black at all. Charcoal isn’t like that. The black stays black forever. Photograph it, scan it, and you get a lovely deep rich black and white image. After that storing is such a huge problem. Most of my charcoal drawings are for exercise and not for permanent display anyway. But those that are keepers, I keep in large plastic sleeves that keep it from smearing or contaminating anything it’s near with black smudges.
Hardness of Charcoal
Charcoal has many grades and softnesses just like lead pencils. The charcoal pencils are labeled according to the softness or hardness. This is created through compressing the charcoal with a mixture of clay. The more clay in the charcoal, the harder the pencil will be. Conversely, the less clay, the softer the charcoal in the pencil. The H signifies hardness or clay content and the B signifies softness or charcoal content. So an HB pencil has equal clay and charcoal and makes a crisp fine line but doesn’t get very black. A 2B pencil has twice as much charcoal and is a bit softer and blacker but not as dark and soft and the 4B or the 6B. Also there is an extremely soft charcoal called vine charcoal which also comes in hard, medium soft and soft. This vine charcoal doesn’t even have wood around it. It is special in that the lines are not dark black even though it’s so soft. The lines made with vine charcoal are so light and soft you can practically erase them with your finger rubbed across the paper.
Creativity is not a mood. Creativity is not a gift. It’s the very Nature of God inside of you.
— Dan McCollam
Kneaded Gum Eraser
To erase charcoal on paper is very difficult. You can’t use regular pink or vinyl erasers with it, which only smudge the charcoal. You want to get a kneaded gum eraser and to use it you do as the name says; you knead it with your fingers. Like pulling taffy, you pull and fold, pull and fold until it has a lighter color. Each time you knead the eraser it makes a “clean” spot that will pick up the charcoal better. You don’t rub the kneaded gum eraser over the paper; you dab it to take off the charcoal marks. This works best on the vine charcoal marks. Because of this, it is best to have all the drawing sketched in with vine charcoal and only when it is just the way you want do you go over it with the charcoal pencils. I always start with the HB or 2B because if I should decide I want to change a line later, the HB and 2B are much easier to pull up with the eraser than the softer, darker, 4B and 6B.
Next comes the sharpening. In my early days in school no one mentioned that the pencils cannot be put into a pencil sharpener which eats charcoal. You MUST sharpen the pencils with a knife and sandpaper. I use an Xacto knife and fine sandpaper but you can buy specialty knives and sandpaper in art stores if you want. Watch my video I made of how to sharpen charcoal pencils.
Also to get the most out of the charcoal pencil you want at least half and inch of wood carved away from the charcoal. This can't be done with a pencil sharpener. A knife is needed.
Art does not reproduce what we see. It makes us see.
— Paul Klee
Good Quality References
The next vital piece of advice is to use only photos with good shadows and light source for your reference to draw from. Too often I will get someone sending me terrible photos they want me to draw their precious child or grandchild from. The worst is photos taken with flash. You simply cannot get a good drawing from a photo taken with the flash. That is because the flash blows out all the shadows. Without good shadows and highlights on a face there is no way to get the feel of the turning of the form. It always comes out flat. Even though the photo looked good to the person, the drawing will look flat and off. Often when I’m commissioned to do a portrait, I insist on coming to the home and taking my own photos of the subject. That way I know I have some good light source and shadows to work from. Outside indirect light is really good. The sun is the best source of light. When I told that to a friend, she took a couple photos of her grandson under a tree with mottled light. It was awful because the sunlight was peaking through the leaves and leaving streaks across his face in awkward places.
Also, the best portraits don’t have the subject looking directly at the camera. A three-quarter view is best. In other words, choose a view where you see most of the front of the face and some of the side of the face. This also helps with the turning of the form and placing shadows in a good place. Nothing takes the place of good quality reference photos to work from, except drawing from life. Most of the time drawing a portrait from life isn’t possible because of time constraints.
Have you ever tried charcoal?
My Mom In Charcoal
I’ve been 40 years discovering that the Queen of all colours is black.
— Auguste Renoir
Most drawing paper works fine with charcoal. I remember working on butcher paper as well. However the best charcoal drawings I get when I use toned paper. I love using a soft grey paper with a little tooth that is midway between white and black. Tooth in paper is a little texture. You don’t want too much texture as in pastel paper because the charcoal cannot fill in the spaces well and looks grainy. When working with black and white, you use a 5-value system. White is one. Black is five. In between that are shades of grey. When you use grey paper the middle grey is already taken and all you have to do is block in the darkest darks and lightest lights. For this I also like using a charcoal white. Some people call it a white conte crayon, but whatever the name it works really well. The only problem is that the white cannot go over the black. They should never crossover. They don’t mix well and instead create a terrible muddy grey that wrecks the whole image. To keep this from happening I always clean up the area where the white will go with a kneaded gum eraser first.
My Grandson In Charcoal
Cheap Blue Paper
In my videos I use a cheap blue paper I get by the ream for my “sketches” of children. It has just the right value even if it is blue. After a while I don’t see the blue and only see the value. Later I like to dump the color in Photoshop and keep only the black and white of the image. That’s where you see the blue turn into grey and work with the 5-value system.
Start by blocking in the face with the sharpened vine charcoal, sharpened the same way you sharpen the charcoal pencils with the sandpaper. On children’s faces the eyes are slightly higher on the face than adults and larger. On an adult the eyes are halfway between the top of the head and the chin. The nose is always small on a child and grows with age. On an adult the nose is halfway between the eyes and the chin. The ears can be placed between the eyebrow and the bottom of the nose on the side of the face. The corners of the mouth usually are placed directly down from the pupil of the eye. The bottom of the lip is halfway between the bottom of the nose and the chin. A child’s neck is always shorter than an adult. If you want to age a child make the neck longer and the nose larger. These are only guidelines, as every individual has their own special features and facial shape.
Drawing is the true test of art.
— J.A.D. Ingres
Build Up The Darkness
Starting with the lightest of the charcoal pencils, the HB Charcoal Pencil, I remap the face that I already blocked in with the soft vine charcoal. There is a reason for this. The vine charcoal is very easy to erase, whereas the charcoal pencils are harder and harder to lift from the paper the darker and softer they get. Once you have made sure the drawing has the right dimensions and is following the reference well, you can retrace the face with the HB making corrections where needed. You can still lift the HB marks from the paper if one goes awry but not as easily and the vine charcoal. This is probably because the HB leaves very light marks.
Next, switch to the 2B, which has double the amount of charcoal to clay ratio. The marks will be darker and more permanent. This is where I block in the deep shadows like under the nose, in the hair, the pupil of the eyes and the corners of the mouth. Then I go to the 4B pencil to get even deeper and darker black marks, making sure I don’t cover up any areas that need to stay white for the highlights. Clean them up with your kneaded gum eraser first and then lay in the white. Go light with the pencil at first and build up the white to very thick in the whitest highlights, like on the ball of the nose, the forehead and the glint in the eye. If the light is from above, resist the temptation to lighten the chin too much. The reason is that highlights bring that thing forward. The chin needs to stay down not come forward more than the nose and forehead, if you get my meaning.
The rest is experience. The more you draw, the more experience you get and the better your skill will become. Like a weight lifter, lifting heavier and heavier weights, start with small things and work your way up until you can tackle commissions to do portraits for a pretty penny. If you feel you need work in one area that is weak, do what I did. Give yourself the 100-day challenge and that one thing once a day for 100 days. You can’t help but get better and stronger in your weak area when you do.
People need motivation to do anything. I don’t think human beings learn anything without desperation.— Jim Carrey