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How to Build a Wood Duck Nest Box

Anthony enjoys spending time in the workshop, kitchen, garden, and out fishing. Many of his DIY projects are featured in his yard.

Wood Duck Nesting Box

Wood Duck Nesting Box

The colorful plumage of the male wood duck makes it one of the most striking birds in North America. The demand for these beautiful feathers nearly led to their extinction in the early 1900s due to over-hunting by market hunters. Fortunately, the populations have rebounded since then, thanks to tighter hunting regulations, habitat restoration, and to the building of man-made nest boxes.

Wood ducks prefer shallow, slow moving waters in wooded areas. They inhabit forested ponds, swamps, streams, and marshes with standing dead timber, logs, and stumps. Floating vegetation and woody debris provides cover for the adult ducks and their chicks, as well as a source for food. They feed on plants like duckweed and wild rice, and they also hunt for aquatic insects, snails, and other small invertebrates.

Male Wood Duck in full plumage

Male Wood Duck in full plumage

Like many other cavity nesting birds, wood ducks cannot excavate their own holes in trees. They rely on finding natural tree cavities or abandoned woodpecker holes to raise their young. Females may range as far as one-half mile from the water in their search for a suitable nesting site. If natural cavities are scarce, they will readily move into a nesting box to lay their eggs.

The hens are prolific egg layers, with the average clutch containing between 10 to 14 eggs. Once the eggs hatch, the mother hen calls to the chicks from outside of the nest box. The little chicks scratch their way up to the entrance hole to leave the nest. A short video (link below) captures several little chicks as they take their amazing leap of faith from a nesting box placed high up in a tree before bouncing safely to the ground.

Building a nesting box is an easy woodworking project. Cedar, redwood, pine, and even plywood are suitable materials, and here's how to make this version of a wood duck nesting box.

How to Build a Wood Duck Nest Box


The Cutting List

Cut the boards into the following parts:

  • Front (part A) 8" W x 16" L
  • Back (part B) 9" W x 24" L
  • Sides (part C) 6" W x 18" L (Qty =2)
  • Roof (part D) 9" W x 11" L
  • Bottom (part E) 6" W x 6" L
  • Entrance guard (Part F) 5" W x 5" L

Cutting Out the Parts & Pieces

Cut the top edge of the sides (part C) on a 30-degree angle to create a slope for the roof. From one end, measure up 18" along one edge and make a mark. From the same end, measure up 16" along the opposite edge and make another mark. Draw a straight line to connect the marks using a ruler or straight edge, and then cut along the line. The angled side pieces are 1/4" shorter than front (part A). The shorter sides create a 1/4" gap under the roof for air circulation.

Layout the location for the oval shaped entrance hole on the front section (part A), and then cut out the opening using a jig saw. Wood ducks prefer oval openings approximately 4" wide by 3" high. Cut a 30-degree bevel across the top edge, matching the slope of the roof and sides.

Clip off each of the corners on the bottom piece (part E) at a 45 degree angle, creating small gaps for drainage. Using weather resistant screws or nails holes, attach the bottom section to the back and side assembly.

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Assemble the Nesting Box

Use weather resistant screws or nails to attach one side (part C) to the front (part A). This is the fixed side, while the other side is hinged to allow access to the finished nest box for periodic cleaning. Attach the bottom (part E) to the sub-assembly.

Position the partially assembled nest box to the back (part B), leaving space both above and below the nest box assemble for mounting the finished box to a tree or pole. Attach the back to the nest box assembly with nails or screws.

Cut a 30 degree bevel across the back edge of the roof (part D). The bevel matches the angled sides, and allows the roof to fit snugly against the back (part B). Attach the roof to the back, side, and front sections.

Our Wood Duck Nesting Box in the Pond

Our Wood Duck Nesting Box in the Pond

Easy Access

Line up the remaining side (part C). To create a hinge, secure the side with one nail or screw driven into each edge -- one through the front (part A) and one through the back (part B) to form a pivot point. Position the hinge screws directly across from each other, enabling the door to open easily. Drill and countersink a screw hole along the center of the bottom edge. A single short screw will secure the door, yet allow easy access for cleaning.

Cut a 3" x 4" hole into the center of the entrance guard (part F). Round off the edges with a file and sandpaper, or use a round over bit in a router to create a finished edge. Mount the entrance guard on to the Front (part A).

Mount the finished nesting box between 4' to 10' above the surface of the water. Consider adding a predator guard to the supporting post to help prevent raccoons from climbing up to wood duck house.

Add 3" to 4" of pine shavings to the bottom of the finished nesting box. Wood ducks do not bring materials into the box to create their nests. The shavings provide cushioning for the eggs as well as adding insulation. If there is not enough shavings, then the hen cannot cover her eggs. Too much shavings can elevate the eggs closer to the entrance hole and within the reach of a hungry raccoon.

Wood Duck Nest Box Plans

Wood Duck Nest Box Plans

Wood Duck Nest Box Plans

Male Wood Duck

Male Wood Duck

Have You Ever Seen a Wood Duck?

With the male's brightly colored plumage, the wood duck is arguably one of the most beautiful birds. They are relatively common throughout their range in North America but due to their preference for marshy ponds and woodland streams, few people have the pleasure of seeing them in their native habitat.

They nest in trees near ponds and stream, and they will even choose a site that is directly above the water. If suitable nesting sites are scarce near a water source, they may be forced to nest up to a mile away. Their feet have strong claws that enables them to perch on tree branches.

Wood Duck Range Map

Wood Duck Babies Bounce! - YouTube Video

Wood ducks build their roosts in holes in trees or nesting boxes built for this purpose. This lucky YouTube contributor had 14 ducklings hatch from their nesting box. A day after they hatch, the ducklings leave the nest box, never to return again.

Building Nest Boxes? The Right Dimensions Are Important

Nest Box Dimensions

Many different species of native birds make their nests in hollow tree cavities including chickadees, woodpeckers, owls, bluebirds, and wood ducks.

As more woodland is lost to urban sprawl, it is becoming increasingly more difficult for cavity nesting birds to find suitable nesting sites to safely raise their young. Fortunately, many cavity nesting birds will readily move into a man-made nest box.

Birds are very fussy when it comes to selecting a nesting site. Every bird species its own nesting requirements including the size of the nest box, the size of the entrance hole, and the height of the entrance hole above the floor of the nest box.

Before buying or building a birdhouse, decide which species of bird already inhabits your yard, and which type you want to attract to your birdhouse. Then, build the birdhouse with their specific requirements in mind. This will significantly increase the chances that a pair of birds will take up residence in your handcrafted birdhouse.

Finished Nesting Box

Wood Duck Nesting Box

Wood Duck Nesting Box

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

Questions & Answers

Question: How high up should I hang my wood duck nest box?

Answer: Wood duck nest boxes can be placed over land or water. The house only needs to be about 6 feet above the ground, and should be mounted to a post that's protected by a predator guard.

Question: When should I put up my wood duck nest box in South Louisiana?

Answer: According to the Wood Duck Society, woods ducks in the southern states may begin nesting in late January. However, some hens produce more than one brood per season. Putting out a nest box in mid-season might attract a late-nesting hen looking for a new place to raise another brood.

Question: What are your thoughts on mounting a wood duck nest box directly on a tree?

Answer: Wood duck nest boxes can be hung in trees, however, it is often better to mount the boxes to a post that's completely surrounded by water. This will help to protect the ducks from predators. For added protection, add a baffle to the post to make it harder for predators to reach the nest box.

© 2011 Anthony Altorenna

Tell Us About Your Birdhouses & Nesting Boxes

Tito Estrada on July 01, 2020:

Adding a Woodie nest for the first time around my pond....any suggestions? Going to build my own nest/box using reclaimed cedar fence slats...

Richard from Hampshire - England on July 13, 2014:

Awesome lens. Very detailed and it's really inspired me to get my DIY hat on :)

lesliesinclair on November 19, 2013:

I like that idea of the wifi camera in the box. With these instructions I could make one myself. I'm glad I found your lens.

Lorelei Cohen from Canada on March 20, 2013:

Oh my goodness but those poor little ducklings making that brave bounce down to the ground. Lol...I would have never believed it if I had not seen it. Wood ducks are amazing birds.

pawpaw911 on March 01, 2012:

Having a pair of Wood Ducks nest near your home, would be a wonderful treat.

anonymous on February 25, 2012:

Time to get those Wood Duck nesting boxes made and put in place...and be sure any old ones are cleaned out for the next Wood Duck family. I guess other critters like to try to move in too sometimes, so its important to keep a check on them. I just have to watch that video again...I'm amazed every time I see the ducklings take that bit jump.

Shorebirdie from San Diego, CA on February 19, 2012:

Very cool. I love wood ducks and wish they would put up boxes in my area.

OrganicMom247 on December 23, 2011:

Bouncing baby ducks... who knew? (I didn't know this).

Karen Kay from Jackson, MS on November 17, 2011:

Well done! I love the way you have laid out the instructions - very clear and easy to follow. Great job!

Vicki Green from Wandering the Pacific Northwest USA on October 03, 2011:

Amazing video of the little ducks jumping from the nest box - good thing they can bounce! Appreciate the plans for building a box - great info.

anonymous on August 10, 2011:

Whew, now that's a jump of faith for the little ones, they sure do hit down with a smack! Thanks for including the video here. As usual, your plans and directions are concise and make sense, well done!Now this is different, my security word is 'rookegg'!

Renaissance Woman from Colorado on August 06, 2011:

Thanks for the wood duck nesting box plans. Really enjoyed the video of the ducklings. The lucky one landed in the ferns. I guess the little ones are pretty tough. They didn't seem fazed by having to drop from the nesting box. Babies are so resilient. They always bounce back. ;-)